Thursday, September 3, 2020

gel electrophoresis Essays

gel electrophoresis Essays gel electrophoresis Essay gel electrophoresis Essay Two dimensional gel cataphoresis Cleansing and finding of the size of the constituent should be possible by SDS-PAGE Size prohibition High-Performance Liquid Chromatography MAb-46 in the second phial used to put the dynamic constituents of proteins present in the main vial. MAb-46 a monoclonal counter acting agent ( MAb-46-1 ) explicitly perceives a 46 kDa protein. Pig or rodent cerebellar layer protein other than immunoprecipitated by MAb-46-1. Natural check in the third phial used to measure these constituents by ELISA method. Chemical connected immunosorbent check is a biochemical strategy significantly utilized in immunology to descry the event of an Ab or an Ag in a given example. So as to put the protein test we thought of Edman degradation strategy, through which we can test what kind of protein is available in that example. In the wake of everything else we followed that our example has four sorts of proteins in it. The assignment of the protein succession using impact: : For contrasting essential organic succession data Basic Local Alignment Search Tool ( BLAST ) will be utilized. Through BLAST we can ready to think about aminic acerb successions of various proteins or bases of DNA arrangements. Impact contrasts the inquiry grouping and the database in the library and it distinguishes the coordinating between them. The BLAST outcomes as follows: Protein successions bring forthing significant partnership Mark E esteem Protective antigen forerunner [ Bacillus anthracis ] 79.3 9e-14 Protective antigen [ Bacillus anthracis str. ] 79.3 9e-14 Protective antigen [ Bacillus anthracis str. ] 79.3 1e-13 Conjectural protein pxo1_110 [ Bacillus anthracis ] 79.3 1e-13 Pag protein [ Bacillus anthracis ] 79.3 1e-13 Mark: It s quantitative estimation of the similitude of adjusted protein succession or area of arrangement. Scoring networks viz. BLOSUM62, BLAST computes the figure or buildups that are, Identical: every single unclear buildup are given a positive imprint. Subbed: all buildups subbed with comparable buildup are given positive imprint and all deposits subbed with disparate buildup are given a negative imprint. Embedded or Deleted: all embedded or erased buildups are given a negative imprint. Blosum62: BLOSUM62 utilizes all obstructs whose individuals shared in any event 62 % with some other individual from that square were found the middle value of and spoke to as a 1 succession. Here is the BLOSUM62 framework. E-esteem ( envision esteem ) : It s the likeliness that a collusion with a similar imprint or higher could be because of chance. Exceptionally significant nutrient E esteems are truly close to zero. In view of the Mark and E-esteem we went to a choice that the example protein is defensive forerunner antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus anthracis: Fig-Gram-positive splenic fever bacteriums ( violet poles ) in cerebrospinal liquid example. The splenic fever poison comprises of three recognizable antigenic constituents. Every one of the poisons is heat stable with sub-atomic load of application. 80kDa. Factor I is vital for creation of hydrops which actuates the poison. So it s called as Edema factor ( EF ) . The EF was seen as comparable with Bordetella challenging hack adenylate cyclase poison. Factor II is of import since it just incites defensive counteracting Ab in guinea swines. So it s called as Protective antigen ( PA ) . Bacillus anthracis poison ties to PA circle which will be interceded by the initiation of EF and LF. Factor III is basic for dangerous impacts of splenic fever poison. So it s called as Lethal factor ( LF ) . These three elements show just antigenicity and non any significant organic movement. PA+LF > fatal outcome EF+PA >production of hydrops EF+LF >inactive PA+LF+EF> results in hydrops and humiliation creation, taking to deadly. Bacillus anthracis organic fear based oppression: Bioterrorism was non begun late. It gazed in 1930 s itself when Japan utilized splenic fever as organic fighting operator against Manchuria. They even tried splenic fever on war prisoners, which brought about human demise. Bacillus anthracis was called as Agent N which was utilized by Alliess in universe wars. In 1942 British ground powers dropped a N-Bomb on Gruinard Island arranged close to the northwest coastline of Scotland. The island was by and large sullied with splenic fever spores, so it was singed completely. Along these lines in 1980 s researcher covered it as unprotected human nation. In 1944 Britain dropped 5million splenic fever tainted cowss in Germany. They were called as cows cakes . Be that as it may, serendipitously none of them were dead. In 1945 Germany burned them securely. During 1978-79 Black Nationalist war Rhodesian specialists utilized splenic fever as an arm against human and cowss. US kept Bacillus anthracis as their arm save until 1972 which was later cr ushed. Yet at the same time research is venturing out on to alienate these natural weapons assaults. makes reference to identified with Bacillus anthracis defensive antigen: Bacillus anthracis by Jeanne Guillemin, college of California hugeness, ISBN 0-520-22917-7, pg-3. Mythical serpent, D.C ( 1999 ) . A reappraisal of splenic fever in Canada and reasonings for research on the infection in northern buffalo . Diary of applied microbiology, pg 87-208. Man who took in splenic fever kicks the bucket , BBC knowledge, 2 November 2008 recovered. Bacillus anthracis Q A ; A: Sign and Symptoms . Crisis availability and reaction. Habitats for ailment control and bar. 2003. Bacillus anthracis and Anthrax antibody Epidemiology and bar of immunization preventable illnesses , National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease control and bar, January 2006. Structure of defensive forerunner antigen of Bacillus anthracis: Iscom: Immunostimulating complex ( ISCOM ) is an embellishment with different frill belongingss. They are detached confine like composites with breadth of 40nm, which are comprised of cholesterin, lipoids, vaccinating operator and saponins. It is accepted to deliver Ab reactions, which results in cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactions. Different proteins segregated from the protein preparing are Protein: Speciess: Glycoprotein 2 Ebola infection Neuraminidase Influena B infection Lockjaw poison Clostridium tetani Choice: Facing all the results into thought we went to a choice that the given examples were non destructive, in light of the fact that they were in extremely little entirety. Be that as it may, these can be utilized for preparing of bio arm as utilized by Al Qaeda on USA in 2001. 2001 ANTHRAX ATTACKS: On September 18 2001, fear based oppressors assaulted USA with splenic fever. Bacillus anthracis spores were sent through sends to a few insight media workplaces and two popularity based US Senators, brought about five human passing and 17 infective. As comparative Anthrax ; Ebola, Influenza and Tetanus were other than unsafe and it might hold horrible radical impacts on universes. Despite the fact that we are holding vaccinum however on the off chance that it hits, we will be alarm. So be better disappointment the security frameworks by keeping up biohazard detecting frameworks in postal administrations and so forth. Yours reliably, Saravanakumar Ravanan.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Impressionist Movement :: essays research papers fc

     Impressionism was a development that happened in both craftsmanship and verse. It was a period in which the individuals parted from the conventional measures or styles. They needed to bring better approaches for communicating their plans to their social orders. These thoughts were seen through subjects of intrigue, for example, craftsmanship and verse. Claude Monet’s Woman with a Parasol: Madame Monet and Her Son and William Butler Yeats’s â€Å"The Wild Swans at Coole† both portray significant parts of the Impressionist Age.      The word â€Å"impressionism† is for the most part connected with the aesthetic development. The first run through this term was utilized concerning craftsmanship was the point at which one essayist was talking about a painting by Claude Monet, called Impression: Sunrise (1872, Musee Marmottan, Paris). The term was first formally utilized in 1877 (â€Å"Impressionism†). The specialists of this development were described as impressionists due to their rearranged works (â€Å"Monet, Claude Oscar†). They were a piece of a gathering where the craftsmen had comparative styles and methods somewhere in the range of 1867 and 1886. A portion of the significant specialists were Monet, Renoir, Pisarro, Sisley, Morisot, just as a couple of others (Pioch). Monet and Renoir both painted scenes of La Grenouillere. Their work implied the start of this new time of craftsmanship (Mataev). The Impressionist Movement developed in light of the fact that these painters needed an alternate style, another strategy, and works of art with progressively one of a kind subjects. The well known works of art of the time were totally affirmed by the Academie des Beaux Arts. The standard kind of artistic creations that were most generally endorsed incorporated a size of tones for framing shapes and blacks and browns for making shadows. These old style works of art were practical, for the most part of scenes inside. Impressionists abandoned this customary craftsmanship and started to paint their subjects outside, utilizing unarranged light. These artistic creations were more impromptu sort, and showed up less everything being equal (â€Å"Impressionism†). There are sure qualities that set impressionist workmanship apart from every single other style of craftsmanship.      Impressionists, both in workmanship and verse, depicted extraordinary pictures of their subjects by utilizing their styles or methods. They regularly caught scenes with distinctive shading, with extraordinary light impacts, and with movement (Sporre 525). The impressionist painters attempted to see their subjects not as what they truly were, yet as various regions of shading, shapes and light. They ordinarily utilized speedy, free brush strokes of non-point by point spots of shading. This technique made an enthusiastic appearance (Sporre 527). Impressionists didn't blend their hues, as the prior craftsmen had done.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Why Dhaka Is a Primate City free essay sample

A primate city is the main city in its nation or area, excessively bigger than any others in the urban chain of command. [1] A primate city circulation has one exceptionally huge city with numerous a lot littler urban communities and towns, and no middle measured urban focuses, as opposed to the direct position size appropriation. [2] The law of the primate city was first proposed by the geographer Mark Jefferson in 1939. [3] He characterizes a primate city as being at any rate twice as extensive as the following biggest city and more than twice as noteworthy. A primate city is number one in its nation in many angles, similar to governmental issues, economy, media, culture and colleges. Substance * 1 Significance * 2 Examples * 3 See likewise * 4 Notes| Significance Not all nations have primate urban areas, however in those that do, the remainder of the nation relies upon it for social, monetary, political, and significant transportation needs. [citation needed] On the other hand the primate city relies upon the remainder of the nation as paying shoppers of the social, financial, political and different administrations created in the zone. We will compose a custom article test on Why Dhaka Is a Primate City or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The nearness of a primate city in a nation may demonstrate an irregularity in developmentâ †normally a dynamic center, and a slacking outskirts, on which the city depends for work and different assets. [5] However, the urban structure isn't legitimately reliant on a countrys level of financial turn of events. Primate urban communities are significant urban areas that fills in as the money related, political, and populace focal point of a nation and isn't matched in any of these perspectives by some other city in that nation. Generally the number of inhabitants in primate urban areas are twice as much as the second biggest city in that nation. Probably the most known primate urban communities would be London, Paris, Athens, Mexico City, Cairo or Kuala Lumpur where these urban areas fill in as the political and monetary focuses of their individual nation. Nations, for example, The United States, China, Canada, Australia or Brazil have a few territorial places.

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Ebays impact on global trade - Free Essay Example

How eBay has an impact on global trade. Introduction 2 What Is eBay? 3 Literature Review 12 Case Study 19 Results 25 Conclusions 27 Bibliography 28 Introduction The advent of the Internet has changed many dynamics in the ways we do things with respect to our business as well as personal lives. The near zero cost of communication and transmission the medium provides has brought new variables to the ability of people to conduct transactions in the borderless Internet world. The new global economy has created the dynamics for call centres based in various parts of the globe, as well as the ability of individuals to conduct international transactions based upon the availability of a computer and Internet connection. These technological advantages are the foundation of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s existence. It provides the means, methodologies, transactional variables, currency and language, as well as common platform via which sellers and buyers are brought together in one cyber locale to purchase and sell anything from pens to airplanes. Gandolfo (1998, P 2) describes the theory of international trade as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the causes, structure and the volume à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (of goods) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦which are importedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ as well as exported and the relative effects that availability and transportability have on price as well as demand. The foregoing is viewed in the same perspective by Dixit et al (1985, P. 1) who explain the theory of international trade as being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ qualitative à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (as in)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ being concerned with the pattern of trade, i.e. which country will export which goodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . This conc erns itself with factors such as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ comparative advantage à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Dixit et al (1985, P. 1) which includes such aspects as technological differences, supplies, etc. They go on to explain that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the other theme is more quantitative, and seeks to explain the terms of trade à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Dixit et al, 1985, P. 1) through à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ relative prices of exports and importsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Dixit et al, 1985, P. 1). The preceding represents the contexts in which an examination of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"How eBay has an impact on global tradeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ shall be conducted. The selection of a more simplified quantitative method is a reflection of the fact that the pattern of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s trading is conducted among individual buyers and sellers based on need, desire and availability, with the aspects of production and supply as secondary factors. The preceding is because the relative nature of the trading platform represent singular or used items rather than new products and the development or creation of demand for mass production and sale, which is a foundational consideration of the qualitative approach. In order to equate the foregoing, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact on global trade shall be examined utilizing varied theories, such as Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces Model, Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Competitive Advantage, the Heckscher-Ohlin Model, Factor-Price Equalization, and various components of international trade theory. eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s operational mode is built upon the foundations of our new global Internet technologies, as well as nearly zero cost communications, 24 hour availability, borderless platform and the ability of individuals, regardless of their business acumen, financial status, location, resources or background to trade virtually anything and anytime. The foregoing represents a unique a pplication of the foregoing theories, thus representing an interesting example of a modern technological medium in the realm of global trade. What Is eBay? EBay is a web-based marketplace whereby a community of sellers and buyers are gathered for the purpose of browsing to buy and or sell a plethora of items ranging from toys, to clothes, and all manner of household and recreational goods to items as big as vehicles, airplanes and to items such as the current offering of a $4,000,000 USD Ramada Inn Motel located in Madisonville, Kentucky in the United States (eBay, 2006). The company was founded in 1995 by Pierre Omidyar and originally was named Auctionweb (wikipedia, 2005). Interestingly, the first item sold on that web site was a broken laser pointer that fetched a price of $14.83. Omidyar called the purchaser to confirm to him that the laser pointer was indeed broken, to which he received the response that the winning bidder was a collector or these type of items (wikipedia , 2005). The operation of the web site consists of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s proprietary software and interfaces which establish a platform for users, buyers and sellers, to communicate with each other over the items up for sale through a bidding process. The company itself, is actually not involved in the interaction between the seller and the buyer, except as the medium via which the transaction takes place. eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s participation it limited to providing the technology, software, registration procedures, seller and buyer rating analysis and the means to conduct the transaction for a percentage of the final bid (eBay, 2006). The web site is user friendly, offering links to explain the process, how to utilize it, as well as all of the pertinent regulations, rules and procedural aspects for conducting selling as well as buying. Sellers are cautioned not to ship items until the payment established in the winning bid has been received, and conversely buyers are cautione d to read the sellers rating as established by other buyers of prior items in considering entering into a transaction. Through the utilization of what is termed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"feedback ratingsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ buyers send a report after a transaction is concluded concerning their respective experiences with that seller. This data, compiled over time, helps other buyers determine the reliability of the seller in future transactions. And while the system is of course open to abuse in first instances, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s reputation with aiding buyers in legal disputes as well as the buyer protection provisions of most credit cards helps to keep these types of instances to a minimum (Kalyanam et al, 2001, P 1). EBay has taken further steps to secure the reliability of transactions through its purchase of the online payment and money transfer company PayPal in 2002 (wikipedia, 2005). The direct control over auction payment transactions provided by PayPalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s connec tion with eBay permits the company to retrieve monies from sellers for none delivered items as well as an additional database resource on the sellers vital personal information, such as banking account and other details to aid in prosecution, if necessary. EBay has been on an international expansion program since 1999 when it acquired the auction house of Butterfield Butterfield (wikipedia, 2005). Since that time, it has acquired the following entities, giving it representation in the following markets (wikipedia, 2005): 1999, acquired auction house Alando whose name was changed to eBay Germany, 2000, acquired which it integrated into its eBay Marketplace, 2001, acquired Mercado Libre, iBazar, and Lakau, Latin American auction sites to provide it with representation in that region, 2003, acquired EachNet, an ecommerce company based in China, 2004, acquired, and auction site in India, 2004, acquired InternetAuction Co in Korea, 2004, acquired an auction house located in The Netherlands 2005, acquired Gumtree, which represents a network of local city classified sites in the United Kingdom, 2005, acquired Skype, an Internet based telephone call system Today, eBay has transaction sites in the following countries (eBay, 2006) Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada China France Germany Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Korea Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Philippines Poland Singapore Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom As well as sub sites offering (eBay, 2006) eBay Motors This segment of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s web site provides sellers and buyers the opportunity to auction passenger vehicles, motorcycles, parts and accessories, trucks, boats, ATVà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, snowmobiles, scooters, aircraft, buses, commercial vehicles, race cars, campers, trailers and varied sub-categories within this genre eBay Stores This aspect of the eBay web site contains direct affiliations with established retailers such as: Hewlett Packard CompuSource Tech 4 Video Equipment Italian Artisans Jewelry BiziPC Store Dell Computers Auto Wholesale Supercenter U.S. Postal Service Collectibles Hot Rod Clothing Railroading and Collectibles Artaholics 4 Hire A multitude of video game and video equipment retailers JPWDirectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Jewelry and Gem Shop Eddieà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Bargain Center HalleyRus Your Swimsuit and Jewellery Too As well as a number of other retailers The preceding represents quite a revealing look into the manner in which eBay offers buyers the opportunity to acquire not only used items, but new ones as well. This is an important aspect in the examination and investigation of the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s influence on global trade as it opens up a new dimension with respect to what Dixit et al (1985, P. 1) explained regarding the theory of international trade as being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ qualitative à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (as in)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ being concerned with the pattern of trade, i.e. which country will export which goodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . This aspect includes items such as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ comparative advantage, i.e. to international differences in relative opportunity costs, and then tries to explain comparative advantage in terms of differences in technologies, factor supplies, etc.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Dixit et al (1985, P. 1). This further explanation is important in that as a result of eBay offering new goods, it is facilitating new product sales as well as access to new markets through its auction platform. This impacts international trade from the perspective of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"comparative advantageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in that an isolated market offering a particular item which has been deemed by corporations as not justifying the cost of investment in supplying said item on a production or distribution standpoint, leaves said item to those or that company or individuals in that market to satisfy. This provides them with the opportunity to set prices based upon the limited supply, thus increasing the cost relative to demand. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s new product offerings have the effect of changing this dynamic as the limited market demand for certain items is met through their new product web affiliations. Discounting for tariff, shipping and import duties, the forgoing has the potential of reducing consumer acquisition costs in such an instance. While the preceding might seemin gly represent a limited application of this theory, the fact remains that the implications and opportunity for said theory to be utilized represents the important aspect. A deeper examination of David Ricardoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1817) theory shall be illustrated in the Literature Review. eBay Business eBay offers business owners and entrepreneurs the opportunity to sell as well as acquire items on a singular as well as ongoing basis through this site segment. It offers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Purchase Protectionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ up to $20,000 USD, financing and payment methods, shipping options, and importantly global resources. It provides on à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"line assistance in finding, bidding and buying items sold and offered on an international basis, as well as how to secure payment, along with customs information. EBay Business offers category headings for items ranging from cell phones, to laptops, office equipment, furnishings, construction items, food service and retail, industrial supply, manufacturing and metalworking and commercial trucks and real estate to list a few aspects. As explained in the preceding segment, eBay Stores, the net effect of providing these types of categories is to open up international markets to the variables of supply and demand, notwithstanding tar iff and import duty costs. This is a discount site offering video games, DVD movies, and music. Books, and more at prices ranging from 50% to 80% off retail. PayPal EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s purchase of this international payments, money transfer and credit card system provided it with an internal means to aid customers of its web site control the buyer and seller transaction, as well as aid in the re-coupment of monies in the event of non performance by either party. This aspect of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s operations helps to ensure trust in the process as well as serve as an additional revenue stream resulting from the transactions in this quarter. The movement of currency across PayPalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s international network that services (PayPal, 2006): Australia Austria Belgium Canada China France Germany Italy Netherlands Spain Denmark Finland Greece Hong Kong Ireland Japan Mexico New Zealand Norway Portugal Argentina Brazil Chile Ecuador India Jamaica Costa Rica Dominican Republic Iceland Israel Malaysia Thailand Anguilla Cyrus Czech Republic Estonia Hungrey Latvia Lithuania Luxenbourg Malta Poland, has the implications of having financial disbursement and transaction capabilities in more countries than eBay has web site operations means that the means to enter these markets has been enhanced, offering considerable leverage for future expansion. ProStores The ramifications of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Pro Stores permits an individual located anywhere to open an on-line e-commerce web site to sell items which could be acquired from eBay or other sources. The implications further impact eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s international trade stance in that it furthers and fosters this through assisting customers in establishing operations in this quarter, which then can result in cross further cross border transactions. An apartment rental and home selection site, provides a service to consumers looking to relocate, find a house or vacation property as well as list apartments and or homes. Its implications with respect to international trade are not as tangible as the other site services listed, but it does provide an example of the broad diversity the company offers in attracting customers which can potentially be converted to other services under its banner. This site category represents one that is similar to eStores as well as in that it provides consumers with a means to purchase electronics, books, clothing, appliances, computers, mobile phones, music, office equipment and furnishings and other items at discount prices. Skype EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s acquisition of Skype for $2.6 billion on September 13, 2005 (CNET News, 2005) is seen in differing views on the part of industry analysts. Some see the acquisition as representing a defensive move by the company to position it to have access to more customers, cross selling opportunities as well as utilize the service for its existing membership base to lower utilization costs and increase revenue at Skype. With 52 million customers, Skype adds 2 million paying consumers to eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s current base, the potential for increasing that total has real dimensions (Evan, 2005) (The Social Customer Manifesto, 2005) (Jupiter Research, 2005). Others see the acquisition as potentially risky in that the field of VoIP players has plenty of competitors that could potentially surpass Skype considering Microsoftà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s varied Internet intentions in this quarter as well (Jupiter Research, 2005). Forrester Research (2005) sees the acquisition as risky in that Skype does not represent a sustainable advantage to eBay in terms of its customer base or service uniqueness. In addition, Forrester Research (2005) sees the price tag as being too high for the potential revenue conversion and paying customer base. Whichever scenario does eventually wind up being the case, the preceding is another example of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s further entrance into global trade through a communications company that will provide it with added capabilities regardless of the financial ramifications. The preceding list of countries as well as sub eBay web sites and offerings is important in understanding the range of items and merchandise that is sellable through this marketplace and thus helps to provide a view as to the manner in which the foregoing has an impact on global trade. If oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s view was that eBay was the purveyor of primarily house wares, art, clothes, electronics and other such items, along with the occasional large ticket items such as the indicated Ramada Inn and or aircraft, the foregoing would change that opinion. The web site is set up to enable buyers and sellers to come together for almost all manner of products in a standard fashion, meaning that the sale of a vehicle, boat, house, airplane or other large sale item is not viewed as unusual. These aspects along with the expanded range of services and interlaced service options represent eBay making a concerned effort to corner the global cyber trading market and thus position the company as the dominant player in buy and sell options for consumers. Literature Review The examination of the implications of eBay with regard to its impact on global trade takes into account a number of theoretical aspects which have differing ramifications. Given the broad implications represented by the foregoing, an analysis of varied international trade theorems was researched to provide a basis for evaluating the preceding. The fact that theories represen t the integral aspect in examining eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact upon global trade, the grouping of the literature review has been organized into theoretical categories rather than by author. This provided the opportunity, where warranted to present differing aspects within the theorem which hopefully provides a more comprehensive view. Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces Model (1979, Pp 21-22) The foundation for Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces Model is the fact that differing industries in fact sustain different profitability levels, due in part to industry structure. Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1979, Pp 21-22) Five Forces Model provides a framework that models industries based upon them being influenced by Five Forces. These are (1979, Pp 21-22): Supplier Power This aspect of Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1997) Five Forces Model represents the scenario whereby the suppliers of the raw materials wield supplier power in respect to their potential to raise or lower prices, as well as the aspect of an abundance or shortage of materials. As eBay operates on a proprietary software platform utilizing a web site that operates on its own servers, it basically controls almost all aspects of this category. The variable that supplier power could be applied to the sellers of products on its web site can be considered, however, the firmà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s virtual monopoly in terms of its Concentration Ratio (see Degree of Rivalry), renders this equation as basically moot. Barriers to Entry The potential for new firms, processes or technology to provide a means for rival firms to enter the field is always a possibility in the light of unforeseen developments. In the absence of any foreseeable developments in this area, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s dominant position in the online auction industry makes the cost of entry high for potential competitors in that it is entrenched as THE online auction site with in excess of 52 million subscribers as well as the potential new subscribers as offered by its PayPal and Skype subsidiaries. As a result of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s dominant market penetration, and subscriber base of 52 million, the threat of a rival would have to come close to or match the company in terms of raw numbers in bringing buyers and sellers into one marketplace. In addition, the foreign market locales already secured by eBay represent another significant barrier to entry in that a rival firm would not only have to meet certain subscriber numbers in eBayà ¢Ã¢â €š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s domestic market, the United States, but also in a percentage of the 26 foreign locales in which it is also dominant in order to be considered a serious contender. Threat of Substitutes From an economistà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s standpoint, the threat of substitutes is exercised when the demand for a product or service is affected by the change in price of a substitute product or service. The more said substitute product or service becomes available, the greater the threat and thus price elasticity. EBay enjoys a virtual monopoly within the industry as evidenced by the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the degree of rivalryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as explained under category 5. This positioning virtually eliminates the potential for the threat of substitutes in that eBay represents a fixed software marketplace where it simply provides the platform for sellers and buyers to transact their business. The uniqueness of this cyber platform means that eBay is basically invisible in the selling and buying process except as a facilitator. The companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s virtual monopoly in the online auction arena means that the potential for a substitute service or aspect of a service to replace its do minance is nearly impossible. As eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s rates are fixed, in terms of per unit transaction, the modest fees are not enough of a point to drive substitution, as explained under Degree of Rivalry. Buyer Power In most industry types, the category of buyer power has significance in terms of a variable which could lead to or represent weakness. In the instance of eBay, buyer poser represents is customer base on which it has a virtual monopoly. The foregoing means that the company operates with the advantage of buyer power in its favour. Degree of Rivalry Porter (1997) posits that in a traditional economic model that the competition between rival firms has the effect of wanting to drive profits to zero as a result of price sensitivity. But, since the market and competition is less than perfect, as well as companies seeking to employ a competitive advantage of one form or another over their competition, the intensity of competition as well as the n umber and size of rival firms creates unequal skews in this area. The à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Concentration Ratioà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ is one measure of rivalry utilized by economists to determine the foregoing. eBay scores an impressive and basically unbelievable 90% of the consumer-to-consumer auction market ratio (wikipedia, 2005). Termed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"category killerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ the preceding means that eBay has a competitive advantage which makes it almost impossible for firms to either remain in business or enter in those markets in which eBay has a presence. It also means that those firm s which are operating in this industry in markets which eBay has yet to enter are at risk if and when eBay decides to enter, owing to its size, superior resources and reputation. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s monopoly status is a result of it having the largest concentration of sellers and buyers, which means that oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s offering has a better chance in securing the desired price, or that one has a better opportunity to find the item one is looking for as a result of said concentrations. As a result of the foregoing competitive advantage, eBay can stave off competitive threats, if they were to surface, through a reduction in auction fees, the addition of free services or extras, as well as utilizing its broad base of other sites and services as leverage. The strong facet of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s competitive advantage, in addition to its 90% Concentration ratio, is the purchase of PayPal. The foregoing provides it with not only a seamless method of transaction completio n, it also provides eBay with exposure to the millions of PayPal customers who have not yet utilized the service. The foregoing is critical when one considers that PayPal is represented in 43 countries (PayPal, 2006) and eBay presently is in operation in 26 countries (eBay, 2006). The foregoing might not seem that noteworthy in face of the fact that eBay operates in cyberspace, therefore it is actually available on a global basis, unless there are governmental access restrictions. Even so, the added dimension which PayPal as well as Skype bring to the already dominant eBay positional advantage decreases the potential of a rival firm being able to exist in its matrix. Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Competitive Advantage The preceding analysis of the literature concerning Michael Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1979) Five Forces Model leads directly to his Competitive Advantage formulations. In his book à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Competitive Advantageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Michael Porter (1998, P 1) describes the fact that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Competitive strategy is the search for a favourable competitive position in an industry.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  He describes competitive advantage as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ value a firm is able to create for its buyers that exceeds the firmà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cost of creating ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . The preceding represents a telling statement. Porter (1998, P 62 118) indicates that the competitive advantage entails cost leadership (Porter, 1998, P 11-14) as well as differentiation (Porter, 1998, P 158-160) . In the instance of cost leadership a company sets out to establish itself as the low cost producer or dominant force in its industry which also can be achieved t hrough being the first in a position of dominance whereby ones cost structure becomes the standard. The foregoing describes eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s advantage which was based upon rational costs that were in keeping with realistic pricing. Differentiation, in the context as laid forth by Porter (Porter, 1998, P 158-160) is whereby a company sets out to be unique within its industry by virtue of either a product, service or some other dimension which is highly valued by its customers. In the instance of eBay this entails its auction trading platform which provides a unique methodology that is subscribers utilize to conduct business without direct interference or overt awareness of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s software running in the background guiding and facilitating the process. The aspects of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces strengths and competitive advantages has implications with respect to international trade in that rival competing firms are essentially locked out of the i ndustry thus leaving eBay as a control element with respect to international trade among individuals as well as small firms. Heckscher-Ohlin Model This theorem puts forth that a country that is abundant in capital will be an exporter of capital-intensive goods. Conversely, a country that is labour intensive will export labour intensive products (Rivera-Batiz et al, 2004, Pp 13-19). The Heckscher-Ohlin Model posits that the relative advantage lies in a country concentrating upon the inherent advantage in which it has a relative abundance. This area is applicable to eBay in that its advantage lies in the proprietary software platform that it established in advance of other companies, with a secondary advantage being that the company was established in the United States market at the beginning of the Internet utilization explosion. These factors provided the climate whereby eBay was bale to grow t an astounding rate unchallenged by competitors until its size and dominance s being the first as well as aggressive marketing left it in a position whereby Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces (1997) limited the ability of other firms to emulate its example. The applicability of the foregoing with respect to international trade lies in eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s exporting of a technology platform whereby consumers can utilize this foundation to conduct business within their own countries as well as with other individuals outside of their borders. The effects in terms of international trade is that eBay is contributing to the process on a micro level multiplied by the millions of its subscribers thus resulting in a significant level. As of July 2004 eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s international sales represented earnings of $273.7m ( £148m) for a 76% increase representing 17 countries as of that date (BBC News, 2004). Factor-Price Equalization This theorem arises out of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model and posits that when the price of goods that are output by countries equalizes when those countries are moving toward free trade, then the factors of labour and capital will also become equalized (Trefler, 1993, Pp 961-987). In the instance of eBay, the international trading platform, in some instances and to a small degree, fosters the implementation of this theorem in that in those markets where certain items are scarce or dear, the option of availability as a result of online availability can result in lowering local prices. eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s influence and the nature of the transaction types is not yet that sophisticated in terms of total volume, however the continued growth of its small business segment is demonstrating such an example in the United States in a limited capacity. As the sophistication of the site and users grows, the potential for this theorem to take hold on an international level seems plausible. International Trade Theory There are several different models which explain varying aspects of international trade. The Heckscher-Ohlin Model is one such variant which was treated as a separate case due to its theorem of labour and capital-intensive goods and the relationship to Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces Model. (1997). The following theories have a different basis for equation and shall thus be explained as part of the literature review under International Trade as a prelude to the Case Study and Discussion segment. Ricardian Model David Ricardoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1817) book which illustrated what has come to be known as the Ricardian Model, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, which focuses on comparative advantage and represents what is considered as the most critical aspect of international trade theory. It states that countries wind up focusing on those goods that they are best at producing as opposed to a broad array of goods. The implications with regard to eBay are that the underlying foundation of the company is its software that provides the platform for individuals to conduct the auctioning of their goods. This factor creates the climate for international trade in that it transcends borders and brings together sellers and buyers regardless of location. In terms of the United States, software programs and development represents one of the services which the country is best known for. Consider Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, and the multitude of companies that produce software which is export ed and utilized on a global basis. As such, the software platform of eBay is the foundation whereby it is engaged in the conduct of international trade in 26 countries as an established operation and countless others whereby individuals access the web site and utilize its services even though they do not reside in a country with a dedicated eBay site. Ricardo (1817, P 9) refers to Adam Smith in drawing an example of value in use and value in exchange, which is the foundation of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s auction principle. Smith stated that the things à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ which have the greatest value in use, have frequently little of no value in exchange; and, on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange, have little or no value in useà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Ricardo, 1817, P 9). In the instance of eBay, this can be applied to a large percentage of the goods and products sold such as jewelry, dolls, collectibles, antiques, etc. However, the site also sells, o r offers, a tremendous amount of goods and products such as computers, clothes, appliances and the like. All in all however, David Ricardoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (1871) theory has validity in that the items of exchange generally fetch higher overall per item sales relative to their utility. The implication with regard to international trade is that money is exchanged for items offered on the site which more than likely would not have occurred as a result of the bringing together of interested parties to conduct the transaction. A limited Lulu comic book purchased by a buyer in Hungary more than likely might not have happened save for them being brought together through the eBay marketplace. The preceding might be an example whereby such could or might have otherwise occurred, however the mass scale of such transactions made possible by eBay indicates that the instances would be and were far less before the existence of the site. Therein lies a critical example of the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s influence and effect upon international trade, it has increased the incidence of such occurrences, and thus increased trade in that quarter by bringing million of individuals into contact with each other who did not have the context to conduct such trades before. Gravity Model Another theory of international trade that has implications with regard to eBay is the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"gravity modelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Its implications with regard to international trade are represented by the fact that it predicts trade based upon the distance that exists between countries and the interaction of their respective economies (Anderson et al, 2003, Pp 170-192). In terms of eBay, the model works in the following fashion. Its equation is, under social scientists, takes into account the population of two differing locales and their distance. The larger the locales the most interaction occurs as a result, due to the mass of individuals (Bergstrand, 1989, Pp 143-152). In other words, using migration as the example, the number of people in Los Angeles that would move to New York is greater than the number of people than would occur between New York and San Francisco. While the relative distance are approximately equal the population of metropolitan Los Angeles is 9.5 millio n, as of 2000 (MSN Encarta, 2005) and the population of San Francisco represented 799,263 individuals (Study Center, 2005). Applying the gravity theory to eBay indicates that with a universe of 52 million people, the potential for a seller linking to a buyer on an international scale is greater than can be accomplished by any other medium, thus representing eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s hold and influence in this manner of trading. The resulting impact is that an individual in Madrid can think in terms of looking on eBay to find a Walt Disney Minnie Mouse doll and achieving greater success than searching in their hometown. Conversely the reverse is also true. An individual in Cleveland, Ohio has a higher degree of success in searching eBay for an authentic shawl made in Spain than looking in the local shops. Case Study The following shall seek to examine the varied reasons that are contributing factors to the success of eBay on an international basis by looking into the economic, economic, psychological implications which are a part of its chemistry. Regardless of location, people tend to act and think the same when it comes to buying in that they all do not like over paying for items they buy. The essential principle behind eBay is economic as well as psychological in that goods will seek to find their way into those circumstances whereby enterprising sellers will bring items to interested buyers utilizing a lower price concept to dispose of their wares. In terms of international trade at eBay, there is sufficient empirical evidence that supports the border effect. The foregoing means that the prices for items between differing countries are usually more than the prices for an item within a country (Engel et al, 1999, Pp 29-58). Modern technology has made possible the increase in price transparency as online Internet based shopping locations can be freely browsed without charge and individuals can discover the relative cost of items via comparison (Baye et al, 2001, Pp 454-475). EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s acquisition of the online payment source PayPal further increased its utility as well as impact in the international trade arena as it facilitated currency conversion and transfers thus making the complexity of which rate to utilize moot. The first consideration in examining eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appeal as well as impact and success in international trade is that sellers have the task of determining the appeal of their offering. As a result, by and large, the high percentage of items are highly tradable, otherwise they are paying a transaction fee that will not yield results. The question which the preceding brings to mind is whether the border effect is a representation of the differing currencies or the fact that there are borders involved. An examination provided by utilizing the euro will aid in this equation and its implications with regard to eBay and its impact on international trade as to whether this is an inhibitor to eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s process. The common European currency is a unit of value that remains constant throughout the European Union community, however, it does not represent price setting or fixing in terms of items sold within countries as this is a factor of the laws of supply and demand. As a result, differences in the price for the same item within the European Union can be found between the United Kingdom and Spain. This same disparity can be found in online shops on the Internet as uncovered by Baye et al (2004, Pp 463-496). The preceding concept is an important aspect in the principle of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"law of one priceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Rogoff (1996, Pp 647-668) states that the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"law of one priceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ generally entails large as well as persistent price differentials. In terms of goods sold internationally, there is a correlation with respect to certain economic principles that aids in determining categories as well as elements present in th e process. Chen (2004, Pp 1257-1286) states that in the instance of tradable versus non-tradable goods, less tradable goods show more price differentials between countries. In defining non-tradable goods Chen (2004, Pp 1257-1286) utilized the example of supermarket products where the variables of rent, labour costs and transportation where factors in the final cost, and that these components differ between countries in the European Union. In line with the foregoing, the higher transportation costs are, the higher the incidence and scope for price discrimination and thus differential in price. Factors such as differing languages as well as product regulation requirements, termed border effect, can result in price differentials thus driving them upward, along with taxes. And, currency trade flows which consists of conversion costs also represents a factor in international trade (Gagnon et al, 2001, P 704). The borderless make up of the Internet basically renders the border effect n ull, discounting for shipping, tariff and import regulations, with respect to differences in online shops, thus setting up the foundational parameter for the appeal of eBay as an international trading force in that buyers have the opportunity to check prices either before or during bidding in a number of ways. Thus, the differential can be termed the currency effect, however a case can be made for each in that the added shipping, tariff and other costs are potential end sale inhibitors. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s 2005 December quarter international sales totalled $464,521,000 as compared against U.S marketplace sales of $504,891 which reveals the strength of this segment in driving profits. The year end results indicate that U.S. marketplace sales for the year end 2004 totalled $1,338,715,000 representing a 31% increase over 2003 year end sales, and the international marketplace sales totalled $1,157,472,000 which represented an increase of 76% over the same period in 2003 (eBay Ann ual Report, 2005). A Bloomberg report for October 18, 2004 indicated that eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s growth is being fuelled by international marketplace sales. One of the primary reasons is that eBay so totally dominates the United States market for online auction sales that overseas sellers looking to list products that appeal to Americans have virtually no choice but to utilize the company. This represents a considerable marketing advantage for the company which helps to fuel online placements even when sellers are not specifically looking for U.S. buyers. This dominance has a significant impact on the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s ability to shut out other potential companies as well as influence global sales resulting through online site auctioning. In terms of the United States, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s performance is exceptional in that the U.S. recorded a trade deficit of $68.5 billion in December 2005 (Foreign Trade Statistics, 2006). Thus, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s international tr ade performance from that perspective represents a huge impact in terms of it being a positive trading platform in the global community where American products and companies do not fair that well. The statistics indicate that in 2004 135 million individuals representing 150 different countries listed a total of 1,339,900,000 items on eBay (eBay Annual Report, 2004). In terms of a percentage of global trade eBay is not a major force as the sales of vehicles, computer software, electronic equipment, agricultural products and other commodities are more influential. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact in the global arena has more to do with its impact on individuals and their ability to either sell or buy items which were either unavailable or difficult to obtain prior to its existence. Even with the Internet providing global consumers with the means to shop for anything, anywhere at anytime, the principle of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"one priceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as explained by Rogoff (1996, Pp 647- 668) and the desire for individuals to seek the lowest price help to drive them to eBay as an option. The framework of eBay lends itself to fostering increased international trade as a result of the indicated borderless format of the Internet. This connect anytime, anywhere foundation provides individuals with a 24 hour 7 day a week location to list and sell their items whereby the buyers determine the price through the bidding process. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s existence has had an impact in global trade in that the $1.1 billion generated by the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s international marketplace would be nonexistent, save for it, or another firm, being the facilitator of such trading. In terms of actual size, the company is dwarfed by the likes of Wal-Mart with 287,989,000,000 in sales, as well as British Petroleum $285,059,000,000, Exxon $270,772,000,000 and Royal Dutch Shell $268,690,000,000 (Fortune Global 500, 2005), but it is the class leader in fostering sales among indivi duals. Its dominance as represented by Porterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Five Forces Model (1979, Pp 21-22) with respect to: Supplier Power Barriers to Entry Threat of Substitutes Buyer Power, and Degree of Rivalry, represents a monopolistic model of how to capture and corner a market niche. The companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"concentration ratioà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ of 90% is almost unheard of in the annual of modern business and the only other classical example of this type of dominance is Microsoftà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s control of the PC Windows operating platform which is undergoing severe legal challenges by the European Union in terms of opening its operating code. The preceding advantage means that unless a rival firm has the sheer financial resources, market name, and Internet platform to challenge eBay, the potential of another company attempting to compete is a near impossibility. This singular control is an influence in terms of global trade in that eBay virtually has the personal international trading platform for individuals to itself. Since the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s methodology is a facilitator whereby it supplies the means for seller and buyer to come together and estab lish their own terms this dominance does not represent a threat to the users of the service. In reality, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s platform represents a positive for seller and buyer in that the transaction fee is the cost of doing business and is known before any activity takes place. In fact, eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s operating matrix represents an almost pure model of free market economics in that seller and buyer seek to establish the price of an item based upon the laws of supply and demand. It is an example of the Ricardian Model (1817) in that it represents a U.S. firm concentrating on a field, software and Internet services, which the country is known to be dominant in. It also represents an almost pure example of what Adam Smith termed as things à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ which have the greatest value in use, have frequently little of no value in exchange; and, on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange, have little or no value in useà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Ricardo, 1817, P 9). The foregoing are key components in eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s success and the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s existence is a result of it meeting and fulfilling the needs of individuals to sell and buy products at a price that is deemed acceptable as well as available regardless of locale. The foregoing represents an application of the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"gravity modelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Anderson et al, 2003, Pp 170-192) as the site contains the highest concentration of sellers and buyers in online auctioning, and thus is a natural gathering place for these two forces to meet. Results In order to be successful in today global economy, a company must engage in as well as establish itself as an international operation to stave of competitors and fuel growth. Such requires positioning the company in such a manner that is can withstand the threats of rival firms and increase the barriers to entry (Porter, 1998, P 11-14). The theories of Ricardo (1817), Porter (1979) , Heckscher-Ohlin (Rivera-Batiz et al, 2004, Pp 13-19) and the gravity model (Anderson et al, 2003, Pp 170-192) are components that are present in eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact on global trade even though said actual impact in terms of net dollars is relatively small. EBay represents a classic example of the free trade theory whereby prices will seek their own level through the application of the laws of supply and demand and makes a strong case for unrestricted free trade which is an underlying premise of the borderless Internet. A key attribute of eBay is its language translation software which permits individuals from differing cultures to converse. It aids sellers and buyers to translate important phrases and terms free, and while it is not 100% accurate, it represents a service the company provides to bring individuals together in a manner that potentially might not and could not happen otherwise. The company is actively working on its own language conversion software in re cognition of the foregoing as announced by the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Chief Executive Officer Meg Whitman in August 2000 (auctionbytes, 2003). The increased efforts on the part of eBay to establish levels of transparency in currency pricing conversion, language, customs information, shipping and payment methodology is making it easier on an ongoing basis for such international transactions to occur. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s operational mode represents a model of globalisation on a small economic scale. It utilizes advanced technology and an almost zero cost communications platform for users to meet and conduct business globally. The availability of the Internet on an international plane enables eBay to reach individuals eliminating border barriers and permits users to trade almost any item. When one considers that advancements in mobile technology will expand this potential to people whether they are at home or out of the house, the potential for further growth of eBayà ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s volume as well as international sales will increase. The potential for the application of individuals in developing countries to enter into the world stage and establish enterprises within their economies represents a new chapter in global economics that has yet to fully manifest, yet is an aspect that is definitively on the horizon. The implications are that eBay will in its small way help to contribute to increased prosperity through increased participation in global trade on the part of individuals everywhere. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s listed site availability shows a skew to just 26 developed countries, even thought it is accessed from more that 150 nations throughout the world. The foregoing is a clear indication that the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s reach exceeds its location parameters. As communication networks and new lower cost computers become increasingly available to lesser developed nations, the impact of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s influence on global trade will become more telling as it brings heretofore unavailable items to further reaches of the globe. The indicated revenues derived by eBay are basically insignificant in terms of the gross sales it generates. The gross revenues of $3,271,309,000 is minor compared to the estimated $20 billion in sales flow generated between sellers and buyers (U.S. Census Bureau 2003). eBays largest revenue site is eBay Motors which represents an estimated $5 billion in sales. The present utilization of the Internet still shows a decided skew toward developed countries which will shift in the future as new technologies bring the medium to individuals of lesser developed countries at an ever increasing rate. EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s entrance into China is just such an example. With the countryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s population of over 1 billion individuals the current eBay subscriber base of 195 million looks small indeed. Just a 1% market penetration means the addition of 10 million people, or approxim ately 5% of eBays present subscriber base, thus, the future number potentials are staggering. When one considers that just a small percentage of Indiaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s 800 million have internet access, and the relative size of Africaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s population, the implications of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s future impact on global trade will represent figures that will in fact be forceful in comparison. Conclusions EBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s dominant position as the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s number one online auction web site and its international expansion to 26 countries has thrust it onto the global stage as a developing force in international trade. The relative volumes recorded in terms of seller to buyer sales at an estimated $20billion is relatively small in global terms, however the foregoing does not represent the limits of future growth which look to be on the verge of an explosion. As pointed out in preceding segments, this platform warrants the examination of eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact on global trade which is for all intents and purposes just at its beginning in terms of influence, size and growth. Present day figures are posing interesting correlations with respect to tariff, custom and other variables that will need future resolution as the globe moves more in eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s direction owing to technology advancements. The effects of this online trading site with respect to international and economic models such as Heckscher-Ohlin Model, Factor-Price Equalization, the Ricardian Model and gravity model are basically at the beginning of their upward curve in terms of influence and effect. All of the foundational indications are there as eBay continues its expansion into China delves deeper into the population of India and Asia and starts gaining ground in Africa as well as South America. As ensuing growth continues, the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s impact in terms of the indicated theories will increase as the subscriber populatio n swells. It is difficult to conceive that the company has managed to retain exclusivity over this huge field, yet in defiance of all reason, such is the case. From the numbers, eBay has the look and fell of a new Microsoft, and if this is the case, it is sure to face the regulatory scrutiny that Bill Gates is now experiencing as its impact grows. However, the nature of its premise does not have the same practices and thus slowing down this international giant looks to be a development that will bear watching as the company continues its growth. Exactly where this success story will wind up is an unknown, but based upon the numbers, it is a source of envy. Bibliography Anderson, James, van Wincoop, Eric (2003) Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle. Issue 93. American Economic Review auctionbytes (2003) eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Tower of Babel. 18, February 2003. Baye, M., Morgan, J. (2001) Informati on gatekeepers on the Internet and the competitiveness of homogeneous markets. Issue 91 American Economic Review Baye, M., Morgan, J., Scholten, P (2004) Price dispersion in the small and the large: Evidence from an internet price comparison site. Issue 52. Journal of Industrial Economics BBC News (2004) International Sales Boost eBay. 21 July 2004. Bergstrand, Jeffrey. (1989) The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade. Issue 71. The Review of Economics and Statistics Chen, N (2004) The behaviour of relative prices in the European Union: A sector analysis. Vol. 48, Issue 6. European Economic Review CNET News (2005) eBay Bets big on Skype. 13 September 2005. Dixit, Avinash, Norman, Victor(1985). Theory of International Trade: A Dual, General Equilibrium Approach. Cambridge Univ ersity Press. ISBN: 0521299691 (2005) Annual Report. eBay. (2006) Ramada Inn Motel Well Established Hotel. Engel, C, Rogers, J. (1999) Deviations from purchasing power parity: Causes and welfare costs. Issue 55. Journal of International Economics Evans, Mark (2005) Wow! EBay is Really Buying Skype. 12 September 2005. Foreign Trade Statistics (2006) U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services. 9 March 2006. Forrester Research (2005) Commentary: eBayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s scary Skype Purchase. 13 September 2005. Fortune Global 500 (2005) Global 500. Fortune Magazine Gagnon, J. Ihrig, J (2001) Mo netary policy and exchange rate pass through. International Finance Discussion Papers Gandolfo, Giancarlo (1998). International Trade Theory and Policy. 1st Edition. Springer Publishing. ISBN: 3540643168 Jupiter Research (2005) Voices not Eyeballs: eBay Buys Skype. 12 September 2005. Kalyanam, Kirthi, McIntyre, Sheby. (2001). Return on Reputation in Online Auction Markets. Department of Marketing, Leavey School of Business, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA. The United States MSN Encarta (2005) Los ÃÆ' ngeles. (2006) PayPal. Porter, Michael (1998) Competitive Advantage. Free Press. ISBN: 068484160 Porter, Michael (1979) On competition. Harvard Business School Press. ISBN: 0875847951 Rogoff, K. (1996) The purchasing power puzzle. Vol. 34, Issue 2. Journal of Economic Literature Ricardo, David (1817) On The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 3rd Edition. John Murray, London the United Kingdom Rivera-Batiz, Oliva, Maria (2004) International trade: Theory, Strategies, and Evidence. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 01982997114 Study Center (2005) Central City Extra. The Social Customer Manifesto (2005) Skype is Being Acquired by eBay. Trefler, D. (1993) International Factor Price Differences: Leontief was Right!. Vol. 101, Issue 6. Journal of Political Economy U.S. Census Bureau (2003) Retail E-Commerce Sales in Second Quarter 2003. wikipedia (2005) Category Killer. wikipedia. (2005). eBay.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Psychology of Terrorism Essay - 2355 Words

New York City. Washington D.C. London. Nairobi. Beirut. Yazidi. Beslan. Mumbai. Lockerbie. These are the locations of some of the world’s worst terrorist attacks, resulting in the deaths of thousands of innocent men, women, and children. The culprits of these attacks were nearly always a relatively small group of individuals that were labeled as terrorists. It has been said that one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter. This is the problem with understanding terrorism, a word that means many things to different people. Our different perspectives make it a difficult problem to define and solve. These incidents have occurred relatively infrequently but their impact has been long term and far reaching. What could drive human†¦show more content†¦An examination of known terrorists along with much research creates a model of what path may lead individuals to choose to participate in this activity. This also leaves the question of why the outlier s that do not fit into this model choose to participate. For many, involvement of family and friends influence their participation. Some may fall under the less popular schools of thought suggesting that narcissistic rage and even geography can be factors in who becomes a terrorist. Reaching a clearer understanding is key to at least slowing the frequency and devastation caused by terrorist attacks. Literature Review The literature review considers opposing viewpoints on the factors that breed terrorism in individuals by discussing the following issues: 1. What psychological tendencies, if any, are present among terrorists? 2. Does religion play a role in influencing individuals to commit terroristic acts? 3. What role do politics play in influencing terrorists? 4. Does socioeconomic strife play a role in determining who may feel compelled to commit terroristic acts? In his book, â€Å"The Anatomy of Terrorism,† David Long examines the psychological aspects that lead an individual to become a terrorist. He claims that the two traits that appear to be disproportionately prevalent amongShow MoreRelatedThe Psychology of Terrorism761 Words   |  3 Pages Terrorism Psychology The assignment being completed within this report asks the author of this paper to answer several questions. The first relates to the psychological attributes of terrorists. The second question asks for historical and cultural antecedents to September 11th. The third and final one asks for mental illness and its inconclusive link with terrorism. Reasons for the inconclusiveness as well as reasons people become terrorists. Psychological Profile of a Terrorist The primaryRead MoreEssay Viewing Terrorism through Social Psychology1286 Words   |  6 Pages Acts of terrorism are becoming increasingly common in todays society. From the frequent suicide bombings in Israel, the recent violence in the Russian village of Beslan, to the attacks on the world trade centers on September the eleventh of 2001 that so violently shook the world; terrorism is rarely far from our minds. Terrorist groups have a variety of aims, acts of revenge, politics, but by far the most common, and arguably most disturbing reason for these actions is religion. It is exceptionallyRead MoreNon-Conventional Terrorism963 Words   |  4 PagesNon-conventional terrorism Introduction Terrorism refers to the use of force or threat in order to create fear to the innocent citizens of a country, and the government. It is designed so as to bring some form of political change by targeting the innocent people ADDIN EN.CITE Deutch19971295(Deutch, 1997)1295129517Deutch, JohnTerrorismForeign PolicyForeign Policy10-221081997Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive, LLC00157228 HYPERLINK l _ENREF_5 o Deutch, 1997Read MoreWhat Does The Word Terrorist?1070 Words   |  5 Pagesis acting in pursuit of political aims. The person committing the crimes will not call themselves terrorists, for the name terrorist is given by the witnesses and victims – more often public agents, the media – who label the acts of violence as terrorism. Terrorists justify their actions through specular causes, religious causes, and sometimes both. Violence is the key factor that leads us to labeling someone as a terrorist, however the violence is seen as a problem being solved and/or eliminatedRead MoreHuman Behavior And Individual s Life Experiences1242 Words   |  5 Pages To what extent psychopathology, individual’s personality and individual’s life experiences are relevant to understand terrorism? In the current national security environment, there is no doubt that terrorism is one of the major scourges our society is exposed to. Government has been spending massive resources and assigned to public and private sector to prevent terrorism. However, these attempts lack sometimes of conceptual and empirical foundation and the definition itself has divided severalRead MoreThe Psychological Profile Of A Terrorist1199 Words   |  5 Pagesterrorist By Joshua Breckling Advanced placement psychology Mr. Cutara 6/4/15 Abstract I found that in my research there were many different definitions of terrorism giving it different personalities to conduct these practices. Another conclusion that is drawn is the fact that terrorist cant be studied up close and asks questions up front in fear of the researchers’ lives. I also found a few common reasons why they have gone to terrorism and how it can affect the type of terror they produceRead MoreReading Review : Why Terrorism Doesn t Work1321 Words   |  6 PagesPOLS2207 Reading Review: Why Terrorism doesn’t work – Max Abrahms Leo Kwon I disagree with Abrahms’ article ‘Why Terrorism doesn’t work’, there are a number of fundamental flaws within his work that I feel undermines its credibility. I feel that if he offered the readers the chance to reach their own conclusions it would have been a persuasive piece. However, by using limited data samples as evidence for his arguments, I find it difficult to understand why this article is held in such high esteemRead MoreHomegrown Muslim Radicalization And Terrorism831 Words   |  4 PagesHomegrown Muslim Radicalization and Terrorism The purpose of this paper is to annotate four sources that I will analyze for my final research paper. These sources focus on the following items: (a) Comparing Muslim converts and non-converts in the United States, (b) the psychology of radicalization, (c) the risk of radicalization and terrorism, and (d) how we can combat homegrown radicalization and terrorism. By analyzing these sources, I will be able to develop in-depth reasoning on this topicRead MoreThe Theory Of Behaviorism Operant Conditioning993 Words   |  4 Pagesthe behavior that its society deems appropriate for its sex . Therein lies the social learning theory of Bandura vs operant conditioning as Skinner believes. Both theories are pivotal in my area of study which is behavioral psychology, with a concentration in Terrorism and Security. The theory of operant conditioning is closely related to how a terrorist would prepare his army, or how they would ready his next suicide bomber. Banduras theory of observational learning, may have a young man whoRead MoreRed Cell Analysis Of Right Wing Extremist Militias1638 Words   |  7 Pagesjustified. Looking at the movement’s psychology, as well as aims and means, it will be clear who in the IC has the authority and responsibility to deal with this domestic terrorist threat and how. The integrity of the US government and the security of the United States may depend on it. In this paper, an overview of right wing militias will be covered. The US Intelligence Community will be examined as to how it contributes to the prevention of domestic terrori sm. Structured analytic techniques will

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prejudice in the United States - 963 Words

In this modern world, prejudice is still a universal problem we still have yet to overcome. Although it is true that our society is much less prejudiced than it was 40-50 years ago, we are still struggling to create racial harmony in a world that is so diverse in terms of racial group, sexual orientations, ethnicity, nationality, religions, and so on. I think the core of prejudice comes from stereotyping, which is the generalization of motives, characteristics, or behavior to an entire group of people. In the world where media propaganda is ubiquitous, often times most stereotypes are not formed on valid experiences, instead they are based on images publicized by the mass media, or even created within our heads after seeing and hearing examples from many different sources, like movies, or even hearsay. Stereotyping is more powerful than we think, because it allows those false pictures to control our thinking that leads us to assign uniform characteristics to any person in a group, wi thout consideration of the actual difference between members of that particular group. Most common form of prejudice, in the United States at least, is in between racial groups. Unfortunately, racial prejudice is so prevalent in the Western society. I believe most people think of themselves as unprejudiced these days, even myself. Sometimes we didn’t realize that we have expressed indirect forms of prejudice, ones that are subtler. Example in the American society could be when white peopleShow MoreRelatedPrejudice And Prejudice By The United States985 Words   |  4 PagesThe United States is a nation of immigrants plagued by hatred for one another. Prejudice and discrimination is more than one occurrence in history or the actions of a single individual. Discrimination was imbedded in our past by our ancestors and has afflicted our lives even today. The media, books, and movies instill the stereotypes that fuel the prejudice and hatred among our country’s people. Numerous times movies have chosen to use people of color to portray the villains and uncivil ized beingsRead MoreDiscrimination and Prejudice in United States History2772 Words   |  12 PagesDiscrimination and prejudice are widely known in United States history. In the 1960s the civil rights movement demanded legislation and passed laws, which banned discrimination. Five decades later, it still continues in our society. Discrimination and prejudice occur when a group of people feel they are superior to another, and can be based on a persons color, race, national origin, religion, sex and gay couples. â€Å"Racism is a form of oppression in which one racial group dominates over others.Read MoreEffects Of Juror Prejudice Within The United States Court System2999 Words   |  12 PagesAbstract The United States Constitution guarantees each American certain rights and freedoms. This is one of the foundations that our country is built upon. Therefore it is important that we are willing to acknowledge when there could be issues that may be affecting the rights of our citizens. As science and technology have evolved over the years we have become accustomed to many advantages that we did not have in the past. From the ability to talking on the phone no matter where we areRead MoreEth/125 Final Exam Essay examples1165 Words   |  5 Pages What information about diversity in the United States has helped you better understand or relate to others in ways that you may not have in the past? * Have you learned something new about your own racial, ethnic, or cultural history? * Trends in immigration will continue to shape the demographics of the United States. What will the U.S. population look like in the year 2050? Why do you think so? * What challenges does the United States face due to the diversity of its people? Read MoreSocietal Attitudes Affecting Bilingual Education1296 Words   |  6 PagesSocietal Attitudes Affecting Bilingual Education Bilingual education in the United States is constantly debated. It is often misunderstood. As Freeman (2000) notes, part of the confusion is caused by the fact that the term refers to a wide range of bilingual programs and practices (p. 204). Practitioners in the field of bilingual education who have educational and linguistic backgrounds strive to implement the most educationally sound policies, programs, and practices in order to best serve theRead MoreThe Developmental Course Of Racial Behavior817 Words   |  4 Pagespurpose and the hypothesis of the study are very concise and direct. The study was to determine the developmental course of racial behaviours in childhood. The researchers in this study are trying to prove how white children’s expressions of racial prejudice do not necessarily decline in middle childhood due to the development of particular cognitive skills, but that instead children older than seven will go on expressing prejudiced attitudes under appropr iate conditions. The hypothesis targets aRead MoreEssay on Prejudice in America943 Words   |  4 PagesPrejudice, the Spoil of Life I was born and raised in Europe. I have learned from my history books that there were freedom and equality in the United States. I learned that, among many other rights, people enjoy freedom of religion and freedom of speech - the rights that were envied by millions of people of the Eastern Block countries. When I came to the United States, I truly believed in the truthfulness of these terms. To my complete satisfaction, my experience taught me the existence ofRead More David Gutersons Snow Falling on Cedars Essay1068 Words   |  5 PagesJapanese-Americans were unfairly sent to internment camps in the United States. This is also true of the incidents that take place in the fictional novel Snow Falling On Cedars, by David Guterson. The discrimination all started at about 8:00 AM on December 7, 1941. At this time the Japanese assembled a fleet of planes and attacked Pearl Harbor, which is located off the shore of Hawaii. The Japanese decided to attack the United States because the U.S. enforced an oil embargo against Japan. ThisRead MoreThe Prejudice Towards Black Men852 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee shows us the prejudice towards black men in the American judicial system. Since the 1930s, the injustice towards black men and woman has not improved. In the United States, over 2,3 million people are incarcerated and one-third black babies will be incarcerated, (Stevenson, P.15). To change this, we need to implement change now. Our society needs to change before the next Tom Robinson is sentenced without a fair trial. The town of Maycomb was theRead MoreDiscrimination Effects from the 1930s1530 Words   |  7 PagesRobert Staunbach. Many people consider the 1930s to be a terrible time of prejudice, especially to some violent extremes. Between racism, sexism, and social prejudice, discrimination levels were about the highest America has ever seen. This was a difficult time for African Americans in the U.S, and despite the decline of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, racism was as strong as ever, especially in the southern states. During the Great Depression, colossal unemployment and relocation forced

In Roman Times, Abortion And The Destruction Of Unwanted Essay Example For Students

In Roman Times, Abortion And The Destruction Of Unwanted Essay children was permissible, but as out civilization has aged, it seemsthat such acts were no longer acceptable by rational human beings, sothat in 1948, Canada along with most other nations in the world signeda declaration of the United Nations promising every human being theright to life. The World Medical Association meeting in Geneve at thesame time, stated that the utmost respect for human life was to befrom the moment of conception. This declaration was re-affirmed whenthe World Medical Association met in Oslo in 1970. Should we gobackwards in our concern for the life of an individual human being?The unborn human is still a human life and not all the wishfulthinking of those advocating repeal of abortion laws, can alter this. Those of us who would seek to protect the human who is still to smallto cry aloud for its own protection, have been accused of having a19th Century approach to life in the last third of the 20th Century. But who in reality is using arguments of a bygone Century? It is anincontrovertible fact of biological science Make no Mistake thatfrom the moment of conception, a new human life has been created. Only those who allow their emotional passion to overide theirknowledge, can deny it: only those who are irrational or ignorantof science, doubt that when a human sperm fertilizes a human ovum anew human being is created. A new human being who carries genes in itscells that make that human being uniquely different from any and otherhuman being and yet, undeniably a member, as we all are, of the greathuman family. All the fetus needs to grow into a babe, a child, an oldman, is time, nutrition and a suitable environment. It is determinedat that very moment of conception whether the baby will be a boy or agirl; which of his parents he will look like; what blood type he willhave. His whole heritage is forever fixed. Look at a human being 8weeks after conception and you, yes every person here who can tell thedifference between a man and a women, will be able to look at thefetus and tell me whether it is a baby boy or a girl. No, a fetus is not just another part of a womens body like anappendix or appendage. These appendages, these perfectly formed tinyfeel belong to a 10 week developed baby, not to his or her mother. The fetus is distinct and different and has its own heartbeat. Do you know that the fetus heart started beating just 18 daysafter a new life was created, beating before the mother even knew shewas pregnant? By 3 months of pregnancy the developing baby is justsmall enough to be help in the palm of a mans hand but look closelyat this 3 month old fetus. All his organs are formed and all hissystems working. He swims, he grasps a pointer, he moves freely, heexcretes urine. If you inject a sweet solution into the water aroundhim, he will swallaw because he likes the taste. Inject a bittersolution and he will quit swallowing because he does not like thetaste. By 16 weeks it is obvious to all, except those who have eyesbut deliberately do not see, that this is a young human being. Who chooses life or death for this little one because abortionis the taking of a human life? This fact is undeniable; however muchof the members of the Womens Liberation Movement, the new Feminists,Dr. Henry Morgentaler or the Canadian Medical Association Presidentfeel about it, does not alter the fact of the matter. Anincontrovertible fact that cannot change as feelings change. If abortion is undeniably the taking of human life and yetsincere misguided people feel that it should be just a personal matterbetween a women and the doctor, there seems to be 2 choices open tothem. (1) That they would believe that other acts of destruction ofhuman beings such as infanticide and homicide should be of no concernof society and therefore, eliminate them from the criminal code. ThisI cannot believe is the thinking of the majority, although thetendency for doctors to respect the selfish desire of parents and nottreat the newborn defective with a necessary lifesaving measure, isbecoming increasingly more common. (2) But for the most part the onlyconclusion available to us is that those pressing for repeal of theabortion laws believe that there are different sorts of human beingsand that by some arbitrary standard, they can place different valueson the lives of there human beings. Of course, different human beingshave different values to each of us as individuals: my moth er meansmore to me than she does to you. But the right to life of all humanbeings is undeniable. I do not think this is negotiable. It is easy tobe concerned with the welfare of those we know and love, whileregarding everybody else as less important and somehow, less real. Most people would rather have heard of the death of thousands in theHonduras flooding disaster than of a serious accident involving aclose friends or favourite relatives. That is why some are lessdisturbed by the slaughter of thousands of unborn children than by thepersonal problems of a pregnant women across the street. Torationalize this double standard, they pretend to themselves that theunborn child is a less valuable human life because it has no activesocial relationships and can therefore, be disposed of by others whohave an arbitrary standard of their own for the value of a human life. I agree that the fetus has not developed its full potentialas a human being: but neither have any of us. Nor will any of us havereached that point: that point of perfect humaness, when we die. Because some of us may be less far along the path than others, doesnot give them the right to kill us. But those in favour of abortion,assume that they have that right, the standard being arbitrary. To saythat a 10 week fetus has less value that a baby, means also that onemust consider a baby of less value than a child, a young adult of lessvalue than an old man. Surely one cannot believe this and still becivilized and human. A society that does not protect its individualmembers is on the lowest scale of civilized society. One of themeasures of a more highly civilized society, is its attitude towardsits weaker members. If the poor, the sick, the handicapped, thementally ill, the helpless are not protected, the society is not asadvanced as in a society where they are protected. The more mature thesociety is, the more there is respect for the dignity and rights ofall human beings. The function of the laws of the society, is toprotect and provide for all members so that no individual or group ofindividuals can be victimized by another individual group. Everymember of Canadian society has a vital stake in what value system isadopted towards its weak, aged, cripple, its helpless intra-uterinemembers; a vital stake in who chooses life or death. As some of you may know, in 1969, the abortion laws werechanged in Canada, so that it became legal for a doctor to perform anabortion if a committee of 3 other doctors in an eccredited hospitaldeemed that continuation of the pregnancy constituted a severe threatto the life and health, mental or physical of the women. Threat tohealth was not defined and so it is variously interpreted to mean veryreal medical disease to anything that interferes with even social oreconomic well being, so that any unwanted or unplanned pregnancy thusqualifies. What really is the truth about the lasting effect of anunwanted pregnancy on the psyche of a womem? Of course there is adifference of opinion among psychiatrists, but if unbiased,prospective studies are examined certain facts become obvious. (1) Thehealth of women who are mentally ill before they become pregnant, isnot improved by an abortion. In fact in 1970 an official statement ofthe World Health Organization said, Serious mental disorders arise more often in women previous mental problems. Thus the very women forwhom legal abortion is considered justified on psychiatric grounds,are the ones who have the highest risk of post-abortion psychiatricdisorders. (2) Most women who are mentally healthy before unwantedpregnancy, despite a temporary emotional upset during the early weeksfor the pregnancy, are mentally healthy after the pregnancy whetherthey were aborted or carried through to term. The motivation behind the september 11th attacks EssayBefore 13 weeks of pregnancy, the neck of the womb is dilated acomparatively easy procedure in someone who has already had a child much more difficult if childbirth has not occurred. The products ofconception in many hospitals are removed but a suction apparatus considered safe and better that the curettal scraping method. After 13weeks pregnancy, the fetus is too big to be removed in this was andeither a dangerous method of injection a solution into the womb iscarried out, this salting out method results in the mother goinginto what is really a miniature labour and after a period of time,expelling a very dead often skinned baby. In some hospitals because ofthe danger of this procedure to the mother, an operation like aminiature Caesarean section called a hysterotomy has to be performed. There area also many other methods. Let us now look if we can, at consequences of such license tokill an individual too small to cry for its own protection. Abortionby suction curettage is not just as simple as a pelvic examinationperformed in a doctors office as Dr. Morgentaler and the televisionprograme W5 who were doing a great disservice to young women in Canadawould have us believe. In Canada as reported in the Canadian MedicalAssociation Journal (the Statistics from Statistics Canada), thecomplication rate and this being for immediate complications of earlyabortion is 4.5%. According to the Wyn report with statistics from 12counties, women who have a previous induced abortion have theirability to bear children in the future permanently impaired. There isa 5-10% increase in infertility. The chances of these women having apregnancy in the tube increases up to 4 times. Premature deliveryincreases up to 50% and when one realizes that prematurity is thecommonest cause for infants being mentally or physically defective ,having cerebral palsy or other difficulties, then one realizes thatthose doctors doing abortions in great numbers south of the border oracross the water, even in Canada may not be doing the women and herfamily a service. They will tell you that abortion has almost nocomplications. What most of them will not tell you, is that once theabortion is done they may refuse to see the women again and that shemust take her post-abortal problems elsewhere. Those seeking repeal of the present abortion law will rapidlypoint out that nevertheless, it is safer to have a legal abortion thanillegal abortions, safer for the women that is. This I do not dispute,but here is the real rub. Liberalized abortion laws do not eliminateillegal, back street abortions and in some cases, the overall numberof illegal abortions actually rise, usually stays stagnant, and rarelyfalls. There are still people who would rather try it themselves or gosomewhere they will be completely anonymous. Another factor enters thetotal number of people seeking abortion, legal or illegal rises. Theoverall pregnancy rate rockets and people become careless withcontraception and a women can have 3 or 4 abortions during the time ofone full term pregnancy. Are doctors really being kind to the girl to allow her tochoose life or death for her unborn child? In aborting a 16 year oldthis year with so-called informed consent, we may be preventing herfrom having even 1 or 2 children 10 years later when happily married. No, repealing the abortion law does not make it possible for everywomen to safely eliminate, what is for her, an unwanted pregnancy. Would limiting abortions to accredited hospitals make itsafer? Yes, safer for the women, not for the fetus and it wouldjeopardize the continued well being of all of the members of thecommunity with the gross misuse of the medical manpower, hospitalfacilities and money. With almost 31,739 abortions performed inOntario in 1989, the cost to OHIP is about 9 million dollars. Yet todo as has been done in the U.S.A and the United Kingdom namely tomake legal, abortions is to turn so-called backstreet butchers intolegal operators. Patients now go into the office through the front door insteadof the rear. I have heard it said that is abortions became availableon request, many less children would be born and we could use thepleasant delivery suites and postnatal beds for abortions. As I havepointed out, however, before today, liberalization of abortion doesnot reduce the birth rate. There would be little increase in availablefacilities or indeed doctors time. By the very nature of theoperation and because the longer pregnancy lasts, the more difficultit is, patients for abortions are admitted as urgent cases oremergencies so that all other members of the community must waitlonger for their hospital bed or the surgery they need. Who will pay for there abortions? With medicare, of course, itis you and I. I know one full tern pregnancy costs most than anabortion, but not much more. And it does not cost more than 3abortions and that is what happens when the climate or choice for lifeor death of the unborn child changes. Let us use this money forconstructive purposes, not destructive. It has been suggested thatabortions on request would enable the poor to secure abortion aseasily as the rich but regrettably, it has been shown thatabortion-minded physicians in great demand will respond to the age-oldcommercial rules, as has already happened in the States and inBritain. Abortion on demand a womens right to choose not to continuean unplanned pregnancy would prevent there being unwanted children inthis country, so we are told. This is the final and desperateemotional plea of people anxious, at whatever price, to escape theresponsibility for their actions. Nobody here or in Canada, wantsthere to be unwanted children in this city, and in this country, andalso in this world. There is nothing more pitiable or heat rendingthat an unwanted fetus becoming an unwanted babe or an unwanted babebecoming an unwanted child, or an unwanted child becoming anembittered adult. But few would think it right to kill or have killedan unwanted baby to prevent it from becoming an unwanted child. Thenhow can they think it right to kill an unwanted fetus, even moredefenceless than a newborn babe just because it may grow into anunwanted child. Once a women has conceived, she already is a parent, be itwilling or otherwise. The only way she ceases it be a parents is bya natural death or an act of killing. Killing in any form is not thesolution to so-called unwanted human beings at any age. Hitler thoughtthis was right. Canadians surely do not. It is a permissive andfrightened society that does not develop the expertise to controlpopulation, civil disorder, crime, poverty, even its own sexuality butyet would mount an uncontrolled, repeat uncontrolled, destructiveattack on the defenceless, very beginnings of life. Let us marshallall our resources financial, educational, those of social agencies,but above all, of human concern and passion for our fellow humans. Letus by all means, make available to all, knowledge of conception andmethods of contraception. Let us offer ourselves as loving humans tothose already in this country who are unwanted by their naturalparents. And incidentally, I am sure I do not need acquaint you withso me of the facts about so-called unwanted children. The ChildrensAid Societies in Toronto and in fact in every major city across ourcountry have many more potential parents anxious and willing to adoptinfants and young children than they have such children available foradoption. Let us marshall our technology and humanity in the serviceof the unfortunate.