Monday, December 30, 2019

How The Idea Of Africa - 1822 Words

Examine how the idea of Africa was invented . What is meant by ‘Africa’? A number of questions come up when trying to define it; is it geographic? Or can Africa be considered a racial definition? Is Africa even one single entity capable of being defined? There is a predominant idea that there is something different or strange about the continent, that it is violent, alien and savage . This false idea has been invented . At what point did African otherness become the norm? I will argue that the modern interpretation of Africa was invented during the European colonial period as a method of separation, splitting the Earth into distinct and arbitrary racial blocks which conformed to the racial science of 19th century†¦show more content†¦Mudimbe is also keen to note that classical notions of barbarism should be detached from any kind of modern context. Greek thought on Africa can be seen to have formed a basis on which more medieval and modern societies based their views of Africa, but in many of these cases classical thought has been twisted in favour of a contemporary ideological goal, as noted by Michael McCarthy. McCarthy notes how many classical writers, such as Pliny and Herodotus, â€Å"needed to create a [cultural] chasm† but there was nothing distinctly African about this chasm. Whilst it can be argued that there are early examples of specific African otherness, particularly in the use Sudan (a racial designation meaning burnt skin ) , there is no true creation of an Africa that still remains in the collective imagination of both Africans and westerners. The classical world built up ideas of otherness, some of which were applied to African peoples. Whilst not inventing the idea of Africa as we know it the classical view may have impacted later medieval perspectives. McCarthy argues that the basis of the European idea of Africa was to some extent the classical ideas, but transplanted into a separate context. Classical ideas of unknown magical lands so uth of the Sahara and deformed peoples appealed to the idea that Europe was the centre of Christian civilisation. What is important to note about Medieval Europe is that the 19th century obsession with race had

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Feminism and the Power Struggle of Women in Ancient Greece...

Feminism and the power struggle of women in Ancient Greece Women are a very prominent part of the Greek society. Their role has influenced and shaped the Greek society to a very large extent. Women have been shown in many different lights in the Greek works of Odyssey and Iliad which we have covered in our class. The works that I will be citing in this essay, namely Homer’s poems Odyssey and Iliad talk about many prominent women such as Helen of Troy, Penelope and also many other Goddesses. Homer’s poems talk about the various traits of Greek women and portray their characteristics by describing their traits and the events they were involved in. Through this essay, I would like to illustrate how women were treated as objects of desire for†¦show more content†¦179, The Odyssey: The Story of Odysseus). Penelope is informed by the Queen of Ithaca that she has to weave a shroud for her dead husband before she remarries. In order to escape remarrying, Penelope cleverly kept weaving the same shroud that she weaved during the day, at night as well, which made the weaving of the shroud a never-ending activity. Another such incident penned by Homer, is the famous bow-stringing incident. Penelope’s husband Odysseus had a unique way of stringing his bow. When Penelope was swarmed by suitors, she tested each one of them by asking them to string the bow the same way her husband would. She was very confident that no one would be able to do that and believed in her husband’s unique ability. I personally feel that Penelope’s story is a great example of what kind of loyalty and faithfulness a woman should have towards her husband. Human beings are social animals, and we all have weaknesses; but overcoming these weaknesses is what makes our character stronger, and this is the point of Penelope that I admire the most. Unfortunately for Penelope, Odysseus was not as faithful as she was. On his long journey back home, Odysseus comes in contact with the witch Calypso and the sea nymph Circe. Although Calypso and Circe are shown to be villainous, there is no excuse for Odysseus’s infidelity with them. Calypso and Circe have special powers due to which Odysseus comes underShow MoreRelatedFeminism in Lysistrata1781 Words   |  8 PagesInstructor Date of submission Feminism in Ancient Greek Culture from the Perspective of Lysistrata Lysistrata is portrayed as a hero by Aristophanes and just as Antigone had played a social role in politics, so is Lysistrata portrayed. Most ancient Greek writers were people who had established themselves in the society. They were people of class, and when they wrote about women, they mostly wrote about women from their own social class. Women were shown to participate only in the domesticRead MoreThe Fight For Equal Rights Essay1753 Words   |  8 Pagesfight for equal rights has always been an ongoing struggle for women. The first movement made by women, war for equal right to vote, also referred to as First-Wave Feminism, happened in the 19th century till early 20th century. Is it possible that there have been earlier accounts that could have supported women’s rights before the 19th century? Greek mythology has many views towards women and it can be interpreted that it was a stepping stone to feminism and the relevance to what is today, a modern womanRead MoreFemin ism in Antigone Essay728 Words   |  3 PagesFeminism in Antigone Although ancient Greece was a male-dominant society, Sophocles’ Antigone portrays women as being strong and capable of making wise decisions. Antigone, the tragic heroine, rejects the traditional role of women. As such, Sophocles punishes Ismene for embodying traditional attitude. Moreover, Creon is punished for misogyny. Sophocles, accordingly, uses characterization to promote feminist ideas. Sophocles introduces a female character in Antigone who is a strong believer andRead MoreAntigone and Girl Power1064 Words   |  5 Pages Feminism is defined as the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of social, political, and economic equality to men. Feminism plays a major role in hundreds of cultures, as it raises consideration to civil freedoms of women across the globe. Feminists generally seek to bring about change by fighting for what they believe in, and are often considered to have personal strength and integrity. In the play Antigone written by the Greek playwright Sophocles, the main character Antigone is a symbolRead MoreThe Conflict Between Women And Women1264 Words   |  6 Pages In ancient Greece, it is clear that certain stereotypes or societal norms were in place about the way that men and women should act. These issues can still be seen in present day society and still hold a problem. Women in ancient Greek culture were believed to be less-superior to men. Essentially, they were thought to be compliant to men’s actions towards them or possess the convention to â€Å"look pretty† for the men of society. This though wasn’t always the case and women could be seen deviatingRead MoreWomen Within The Grecian Culture1316 Words   |  6 PagesAncient Greece as a place and period time in our extensive history was a place of patriarchal power, controlled almost entirely by the masculine sphere and association with the Gods. It was a time in history that produced some of the most famous thinkers however they were all men. Women within the Grecian culture where very much the passive sex, confined to housework and almost never educated. It is i nteresting therefore that the characters that have emerged at the exposure of the phallic philosophicalRead MoreWomen s Oppression Of Women1657 Words   |  7 PagesThe oppression of women is best described as a steel cage, crafted over the centuries by the hands of patriarchal powers, enslaving flightless and chirp less birds. Birds may be benevolent and gentle, yet they embody a power most ferocious amongst all creatures. Though, it is of no fascination as to why women, in being similar to birds, transform from powerful peoples to frail figures. The molestation of power from these birds is done by the hindering cage encompassing them. The thick bars of oppressionRead More Feminism in Medea by Euripides Essay1000 Words   |  4 PagesFeminism in Medea by Euripides The play Medea by Euripides challenges the dominant views of femininity in the patriarchal society of the Greeks. While pursuing her ambition Medea disregards many of the feminine stereotypes/ characteristics of the patriarchal Greek society. She questions the inequality of women in a patriarchal society, contradicts Jason?s chauvinist beliefs, challenges the stereotype that women are weak and passive and completely disregards the feminine role of motherhoodRead MoreAnalysis Of Sophocles Play Antigone 1308 Words   |  6 Pages Throughout history, many cultures from around the world have set standards for women to follow. In ancient Greece, women had just about the same rights and freedom as slaves. A women would always live under the control of her father, husband, or any other male relative at the time. Women did not leave the household but instead they took care of it. Only wealthy women and that s not even half the amount of the ladies that didn’t have to work and just supervised slaves. The treatment of malesRead MoreWomen Role in Christianity and Islam996 Words   |  4 Pagesbeginning of the early Christian church, starting with Jesus, women were important members of the movement. The examples of the manner of Jesus reveal his attitudes toward women and show repeatedly how he liberated and affirmed women. Both complementarians and egalitarians see Jesus as treating women with compassion, grace and dignity.[2] The gospels of the New Testament, especially Luke, often mention Jesus speaking t o or helping women publicly and openly, contrary to the social norms of the time

Friday, December 13, 2019

Phnom Penh Free Essays

I was born in Kampong Cham Province and I have moved to live in Phnom Penh since I finished my high school. When I first came here in Phnom Penh, I felt very surprise and scare. The building and people were far different from my hometown. We will write a custom essay sample on Phnom Penh or any similar topic only for you Order Now I got around Phnom Penh by motorbike for a first few days. I saw many high rise buildings; especially the city’s French colonial buildings were beautiful. I saw some different kind of transportation that running on the road such as: modern car, Motorbikes, Motorbike-taxis (motodops), Taxis were available at a few locations, Tuk-tuks, and Cyclos. There transportations were in the great amount if compared to my province and it sometimes caused a very serious traffic jam and accidents. I also went to the Royal Palace which no photography was allowed inside the Silver Pagoda and some of the Palace buildings. You were expected to dress decently (no bare legs or shoulders). Beside this, I went to Wat Phnom. I liked the park there. It was a pleasant green space and a popular gathering place for locals. A few monkeys kept quarters there as well and will helped themselves to any drinks you leave unattended. After that I went to Independence and Liberation memorials. Impressive Buddhist-style Independence Memorial, commemorating the departure of the French in 1953, dominated the centre of the city. Nearby was the very ugly Stalin-style Liberation Memorial, marking the Vietnamese capture of the city in 1979. The area was especially popular on weekend nights with locals when the multi-colored fountains were activated and communal music was played. I took several pictures there and got some rest. I also went to Sorya shopping center which located at the south of the Central Market. It’s on a North-South Street on the west side. It is currently Phnom Penh’s main Western-style mall. It is air-conditioned and contains a range of cheap fast-food outlets as well as a well-stocked supermarket named Lucky Supermarket. You can do shopping, eating, drinking, playing game and whatsoever. Everything is served here. After I live in Phnom Penh for many years, I feel that it is completely different from my province. Phnom Penh is developing very fast. Many high buildings were built, many companies were established and the whole city’s infrastructures are constructing rapidly. One I feel very anxious about is people here are competing for each other very aggressively. If you are not smart enough and you don’t high education, you will be jobless, isolate and demise from the society. How to cite Phnom Penh, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Renaissance Essay Example For Students

Renaissance Essay The Renaissance was preceded by International Gothic, a style of art and architecture that continued into the first decades of the asses. In Gothic art figures appear static, lacking depth, volume and pictorial realism. Artists favored backgrounds of gold-leaf that embellished the image and accentuated its flatness. Figures become more three- dimensional, their movement fluid and natural. Detailed landscapes or Classical architectural settings demonstrate new theories of perspective. Sacred imagery-? Jesus, Mary and saints-?was no longer the only subject for art. We will write a custom essay on Renaissance specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Spurred on by humanist concepts derived through the revival of Greece-Roman texts, Renaissance artists made humans central to their paintings. However, the shift from Gothic to Renaissance ideas was slow and, as a result, many paintings from the first half of the fifteenth century remain rooted in the older tradition. The principal members of the first generation of Renaissance artistsDONATED in sculpture, Fillips BRUCELLOSIS in architecture, and MOSAIC in paintingshared many important characteristics. Central to their thinking was a faith in the theoretical foundations of art and the conviction that development and progress were not only possible but essential to the life and significance of the arts. Ancient art was revered, not only as an inspiring model but also as a record of trial and error that could reveal the successes of former great artists. Intending to retrace the creative process rather than to merely imitate the final achievements of antiquity, Early Renaissance artists sought to create art forms consistent with the appearance of the natural world and tit their experience of human personality and behavior. The challenge of accurate representation as it concerned mass sculptural form, or the pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color, was addressed in the spirit of intense and methodical inquiry. Rational inquiry was believed to be the key to success; therefore, efforts were made to discover the correct laws of proportion for architecture and for the representation of the human body and to systematize the rendering of pictorial space. Although these artists were keenly observant of natural phenomena, they also tended to extrapolate general rules from specific appearances. Similarly, they made an effort to go beyond straightforward transcription of nature, to instill the work of art with ideal, intangible qualities, endowing it with a beauty and significance greater and more permanent than that actually found in nature. These characteristicsthe rendering of ideal forms rather than literal appearance and the concept of the physical world as the vehicle or imperfect embodiment of monumental spiritual beautywere to remain fundamental to the nature and development of Italian Renaissance art. The art of the High Renaissance, however, sought a general, unified effect of pictorial representation or architectural composition, increasing the dramatic force and physical presence of a work of art and gathering its energies and forming a controlled equilibrium. Because the essential characteristic of High Renaissance art was its unitya balance achieved as a matter of intuition, beyond the reach of rational knowledge or technical skillthe High Renaissance style was destined to break up as soon as emphasis was shifted to favor any one element in the composition. The High Renaissance style endured for them Leonardo dad Vinci, Donate Aberrant, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian. Leonardo dad Vines unfinished Adoration of the Magi (1481; Fizz Gallery, Florence) is regarded as a landmark of unified pictorial composition, later realized fully in his fresco The Last Supper (1495-97; Santa Maria dell Gracie, Milan). Leonardo is considered the paragon of Renaissance thinkers, engaged as he was in experiments f all kinds and having brought to his art a spirit of restless inquiry that sought to discover the laws governing diverse natural phenomena. A major watershed in the development of Italian Renaissance art was the sack of Rome in 1527, which temporarily ended the citys role as a source of patronage and compelled artists to travel to other centers in Italy, France, and Spain. Even before the death of Raphael, in 1520, anticlimactic tendencies had begun to manifest themselves in Roman art. Renaissance Essay Example For Students Renaissance Essay Renaissance Renaissance is a French word meaning rebirth. The Renaissance originated in Italy during the mid-14th century and spanned through the 17th century. This rebirth was a distinct change from the previous time period, the Middle Ages. The Renaissance was a cultural rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas, which was demonstrated in art, literature, and religion. It was, generally, a rebirth (some may say revival) of art, literature, and religion. Starting in around the mid-14th century, it was truly a rebirth. Coming off the Black Death and Hundred Years War, there was leant of room for change. We will write a custom essay on Renaissance specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Around one-third of Rupees population was ravaged by wars and disease during the end of the Middle Ages, so new generations of ideas were bound to happen. With art, new techniques grew in paintings, sculptures, and architecture. There was finer definition in facial structure and the occurrence of naturalism, as shown in works like David. There was also the creation of three- dimensional painting on a two-dimensional surface. Renaissance artists were recognized and respected as individuals, not as much as a group at this point. David y Michelangelo, was a sculpture of the Biblical hero, created between 1501 and 1504. The reason this sculpture is so magnificent is that it was built like a Greek god with such fine technique and the beauty of naturalism. The Middle Ages can also be recognized as an Age of Faith. With the great power of the papacy and Catholic Church, one cannot simply deny that this was a church- dominated period of time. The Renaissance, however, was not so much religiously dominated, more so a new way of thinking towards the world. Instead of a religiously run government, it was more of an aristocracy style government. This means families like the Medici family were powerful because of their wealth and history. Patriarch was an Italian writer, also known as the Father of Humanism, during the Renaissance who admired Greek and Roman style. 1To put it briefly, we ought to act as a careful guardian of the state, not as its lord. Such was the advice that the philosopher gave at great length in his politics, advice that is found to be very useful and clearly consistent with Justice. The philosopher to whom he was referring was Aristotle, showing that great thinkers during the Renaissance were looking back to the Greeks or their ideas rather than looking to the church for guidance. Literature grew emphatically during the Renaissance. The earliest (quite possibly the best) writers were Dante, Patriarch, Vocation, and Machiavelli. These Italian writers had notable works that spread throughout Europe, ultimately spreading some of the Renaissance style. With the creation of the movable type printing press in the asses Oneness Gutenberg), there was significant encouragement for literacy and the spread of the Renaissance ideas. It is a press, certainly, but a press from which shall flow in inexhaustible streams Through it, God will spread His Word. A spring of truth shall flow from it: like a new star it shall scatter the darkness of ignorance, and cause a light heretofore unknown to shine amongst men. Gutenberg basically foreshadowed the spread of knowledge with his printing press. In conclusion, the Renaissance was Roman and Greek ideas, which modified the layout of European society for many centuries (for better or for worse). This cultural rediscovery was shown in art, literature, and religion for an amazing three hundred years of history.